Eye Conditions and Diseases

Our expert team of doctors provides suggestions and instructions for referrals to ophthalmologists or other specialists to treat various eye conditions and diseases. Below is a list of some of these conditions:

 

  1. Eye Allergies: Triggers such as outdoor allergens, such as pollens from grass, trees, and weeds; indoor allergens, such as pet dander, dust mites, and mold; and irritants, such as cigarette smoke, perfume, and diesel exhaust can all cause allergies to the eyes. Primary care doctors or allergy specialists can usually test for these various allergens in children.
     

  2. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye): Inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.
     

  3. Amblyopia: Also called lazy eye, is a disorder of sight due to the eye and brain not working well together. It results in decreased vision in an eye that otherwise typically appears normal. It is the most common cause of decreased vision in a single eye among children and younger adults. The cause of amblyopia can be any condition that interferes with focusing during early childhood.
     

  4. Astigmatism: A type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina. This results in distorted or blurred vision at all distances. Other symptoms can include eyestrain, headaches, and trouble driving at night. If it occurs early in life, it can result in amblyopia.
     

  5. Blepharitis: One of the most common ocular conditions characterized by inflammation, scaling, reddening, and crusting of the eyelid. This condition may also cause burning, itching, or a grainy sensation when introducing foreign objects or substances to the eye. Although blepharitis is not sight-threatening, it can lead to permanent alterations of the eyelid margin. The overall etiology is a result of bacteria and inflammation from congested meibomian oil glands at the base of each eyelash.
     

  6. Double Vision (Diplopia): The simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other. It is usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular muscles, where both eyes are still functional, but they cannot turn to target the desired object.
     

  7. Droopy Eyelids (Ptosis): Drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer when the individual's muscles are tired. This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye," but that term normally refers to the condition amblyopia. If severe enough and left untreated, the drooping eyelid can cause other conditions, such as amblyopia or astigmatism. This is why it is especially important for this disorder to be treated in children at a young age before it can interfere with vision development.
     

  8. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that result in damage to the optic nerve and cause vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Peripheral vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated. Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent.
     

  9. Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction: The obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct and may be either congenital or acquired. Obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct leads to the excess overflow of tears called epiphora.
     

  10. Nystagmus: A condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in some cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision. Due to the involuntary movement of the eye, it has been called "dancing eyes"
     

  11. Red Eyes: An eye that appears red due to illness or injury. It is usually the injection and prominence of the superficial blood vessels of the conjunctiva, which may be caused by disorders of these or adjacent structures. Conjunctivitis and subconjunctival hemorrhage are two of the less serious but more common causes. Management includes assessing whether emergency action (including referral) is needed, or whether treatment can be accomplished without additional resources.
     

  12. Strabismus: A condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye which is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be present occasionally or constantly. If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception. If onset is during adulthood, it is more likely to result in double vision. Strabismus can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma, or infections.
     

  13. Stye: A stye, also known as a hordeolum, is a bacterial infection of an oil gland in the eyelid. This results in a red tender bump at the edge of the eyelid. The outside or the inside of the eyelid can be affected.
     

  14. Uvelitus: Uveitis is a form of eye inflammation. It affects the middle layer of tissue in the eye wall (uvea).